Use of horticultural charcoal

Use of horticultural charcoal


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Use of horticultural charcoal within the UK for the purpose of manufacture of turf-grade artificial turf surfaces for sport and leisure facilities and parks has been increasing dramatically since 1999. This growth can largely be attributed to an increasing trend in the market for artificial grass and the growing number of sports and leisure facilities utilizing turf installations. In the UK, as of 1999 the number of artificial turf fields had risen to over 40% of all sports facilities and has now increased to over 50%. To supply the market in this way, a vast number of factories have been built to handle the large-scale manufacture of artificial turf pitches. These factories are designed with the ability to produce hundreds of thousands of square meters of turf per annum and are run on a 'full turn of the sod' basis. This requires that by 6 pm on the following day the field needs to be replaced with fresh turf.

A typical installation comprises 4-5 tonnes of dried turf, 55 square meters of standard turf cover, 5 tonnes of turf binding and 15 square meters of turf reinforcement, requiring a manufacturing footprint of 250 square meters for just one turf roll. The binding and reinforcement layers are manufactured by skilled tanners and these manufacturing processes are the most important aspect of the overall cost of the installation.

Turf reinforcement materials manufactured to date have relied on a mix of synthetic polymeric fibers, rock wools, glass fibers and metal strands to create the reinforcement layers and to provide the necessary tensile, compression and shear strength to the turf cover.

Examples of known reinforcement materials can be found in: U.S. Pat. No. 4,662,501 by Magliocca, U.S. Pat. No. 5,882,551 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,693,230 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,707,849 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,713,838 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,022,665 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,809,553 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,015,345 by De Cicco, U.S. Pat. No. 6,216,469 by Bosco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,025,213 by Magliocca, U.S. Pat. No. 6,183,568 by Zadori, U.S. Pat. No. 6,095,212 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,149,955 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,725,538 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,810,328 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,870,160 by De Cicco, U.S. Pat. No. 6,006,807 by O'Hearn et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,869,151 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,003,460 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,868,816 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,968,354 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,077,416 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,651,618 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,131,406 by Vercelli et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,755,824 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,133,573 by Salsano et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,881,944 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,133,590 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,201,210 by Bierley et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,210,079 by Salsano et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,217,652 by Pasquali, U.S. Pat. No. 6,190,351 by Mazzeo et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,062,639 by Linthicum, U.S. Pat. No. 5,974,978 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,827,608 by Zadori, U.S. Pat. No. 5,997,793 by De Cicco, U.S. Pat. No. 5,952,503 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,194,372 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,874,456 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,879,703 by DiFilippo et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,874,757 by Wood et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,080,567 by Salsano et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,803,604 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,816,605 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,725,553 by DiFilippo et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,677,140 by De Cicco et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,624,619 by Magliocca et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,703,